Wednesday, September 2, 2020
Why Hercules Had to Perform the 12 Labors For a mind-blowing majority, Hercules (Greek: Herakles/Heracles) was in bondage to his cousin-once-expelled, Eurystheus, the King of Tiryns, yet it was not until Hercules submitted unspeakable acts that Eurystheus got the chance to have a fabulous time at his cousins cost with the assistance of Hera. Hera, who had been irate with Hercules since even before he was conceived and had over and over attempted to pulverize him, presently made the legend frantic and preposterous. In this state, Hercules envisioned he saw Lycus, the despot of Thebes who slaughtered Creon and plans to execute Hercules family, joined by his family. Here is an area on the butcher, from a 1917 English interpretation of Senecas disaster (Translated by Miller, Frank Justus. Loeb Classical Library Volumes. Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press; London, William Heinemann Ltd. 1917): [He gets a quick look at his children.] But look! here sneak the offspring of the ruler, my adversary, the accursed generate of Lycus; to your hated dad this hand forthwith will send you. Let my bowstring release quick bolts so it is meet that the poles of Hercules ought to fly.... THE VOICE OF MEGARA Husband, save me now, I ask. It's obvious, I am Megara. This is thy child, with thine own looks and bearing. It couldn't be any more obvious, how he loosens up his hands. THE VOICE OF HERCULES: I have gotten my stepdame [Juno/Hera]. Come, pay me thy obligation, and free oÃ¢â¬â¢ermastered Jove from a debasing burden. Be that as it may, before the mother let this little beast perish.Seneca Hercules Furens In actuality, the figures the Greek legend saw were his own kids and his all around adored spouse, Megara. Hercules slew them all (or the majority of them) and burned 2 of the offspring of his sibling Iphicles, too. In certain records, Megara endure. In these, when he woke up, Hercules moved his better half, Megara to Iolaus. [To study Hercules lethal fierceness, you should peruse the Hercules Furens catastrophes of Seneca and Euripides.] Here is an all-inclusive entry from a similar interpretation of Hercules Furens, on the inspiration of Juno:  But I mourn old wrongs; one land, the evil and savage place that is known for Thebes, dispersed thick with bold special ladies, how oft has it made me stepdame! However, however Alcmena be magnified and in triumph hold my place; however her child, in like manner, acquire his guaranteed star (for whose generating the world lost a day, and Phoebus with late light shone forward from the Eastern ocean, bidden to keep his splendid vehicle sunk underneath Oceans waves), not in such design will my scorn have its end; my irate soul will keep up a long-living rage, and my seething brilliant, banishing harmony, will wage ceaseless wars. What wars? Whatever fearsome animal the antagonistic earth creates, whatever the ocean or the air has borne, fantastic, shocking, poisonous, savage, wild, has been broken and stifled. He rises once again and experiences flourishes with difficulty; he makes the most of my rage; to his own credit he turns my abhor; forcing too barbarous undertakings, I h ave yet demonstrated his sire, however give space for brilliance. Where the Sun, as he brings back, and where, as he excuses day, hues both Ethiop races with neighboring light, his unconquered valor is revered, and in all the world he is celebrated as a divine being. Presently I have no beasts left, and tis less work for Hercules to satisfy my requests than for me to arrange; with satisfaction he invites my orders. What merciless biddings of his despot could hurt this hasty youth? Why, he bears as weapons what he once battled and survived; he goes furnished by lion and by hydra. Nor is earth immense enough for him; observe, he has separated the entryways of diabolical Jove, and takes back to the upper world the spoils7 of a vanquished ruler. I myself saw, indeed, saw him, the shadows of under night scattered and Dis ousted, gladly showing to his dad a siblings ruins. For what reason does he not drag forward, bound and stacked down with chains, Pluto himself, who attracted a grea t deal equivalent to Joves? For what reason does he not reign over vanquished Erebus and uncover the Styx? It isn't sufficient only to restore; the law of the shades has been dissolved, a path back has been opened from the most reduced phantoms, and the riddles of fear Death lie exposed. In any case, he, jubilant at having blasted the jail of the shades, triumphs over me, and with haughty hand leads through the urban areas of Greece that gloomy dog. I saw the light therapist at sight of Cerberus, and the sun pale with dread; upon me, as well, fear came, and as I looked at the three necks of the vanquished beast I trembled at my own command. But I regret an excessive amount of oer unimportant wrongs. Tis for paradise we should fear, in case he hold onto the most noteworthy domains who has beaten the least he will grab the staff from his dad. Nor will he go to the stars by a tranquil excursion as Bacchus did; he will look for a way through ruin, and will want to administer in an u nfilled universe. He grows proudly of tried may, and has learned by bearing them that the sky can be vanquished by his quality; he set his head underneath the sky, nor did the weight of that inconceivable mass curve his shoulders, and the atmosphere laid better on the neck of Hercules. Unshaken, his back upbore the stars and the sky and me down-squeezing. He looks for a route to the divine beings above. Then on, my rage, on, and pulverize this plotter of enormous things; close with him, thyself sever him in pieces with thine own hands. For what reason to another depend such abhor? Release the wild brutes their ways, let Eurystheus rest, himself fatigued with forcing errands. Set free the Titans who set out to attack the magnificence of Jove; unbar Sicilys mountain cavern, and let the Dorian land, which trembles at whatever point the goliath battles, set free the covered casing of that fear beast; let Luna in the sky produce still different huge animals. Be that as it may, he has vanquished, for example, these. Dost then look for Alcides coordinate? None is there spare himself; presently with himself let him war. Stir the Eumenides from the most reduced chasm of Tartarus; let them be here, let their flaring locks drop fire, and let their savage hands shake twisted whips. Go now, glad one, look for the homesteads of the immortals and detest keeps an eye on bequest. Dost imagine that now thou hast got away from the Styx and the unfeeling phantoms? Here will I show thee diabolical shapes. One in profound haziness covered, far down beneath the spot of expulsion of liable spirits, will I call up-the goddess Discord, whom an immense natural hollow, banned by a mountain, monitors; I will deliver her, and drag out from the most profound domain of Dis whatever thou hast left; derisive Crime will come and wild Impiety, recolored with related blood, Error, and Madness, furnished ever against itself-this, this be the priest of my hurting wrath! Begin, handmaid s of Dis, make scramble to display the copying pine; let Megaera lead on her band bristling with snakes and with malevolent hand grab an enormous faggot from the blasting fire. To work! guarantee retaliation for offended Styx. Break his heart; let a fiercer fire sear his soul than seethes in Aetnas heaters. That Alcides might be driven on, looted of all sense, by forceful rage stricken, mine must be the craze first-Juno, why ravst thou not? Me, ye sisters, me first, deprived of reason, drive to frenzy, in the event that I am to design some deed commendable a stepdames doing. Leave my solicitation alone changed; may he return and discover his children safe, that is my supplication, and solid of hand may he return. I have discovered the day when Hercules loathed valor is to be my satisfaction. Me has he survived; presently may he conquer himself and long amazing, late came back from the universe of death. In this may it benefit me that he is the child of Jove, I will remain by him and , that his poles may fly from string unerring, Ill balance them with my hand, manage the madmans weapons, thus finally be in favor of Hercules in the fight. At the point when he has done this wrongdoing, at that point let his dad concede those hands to heaven! Now should my war be gotten under way; the sky is lighting up and the sparkling sun takes up in saffron day break. Hercules Seeks Purification for His Crimes Frenzy was not a reason for the butchery not even franticness sent by the divine beings so Hercules needed to offer some kind of reparation. To begin with, he went to King Thespius on Mt. Helicon [see a guide of northern Greece, Dd, in Boeotia] for cleansing, however that wasnt enough. Hercules' Expiation and Marching Orders To realize what further course he should take, Hercules counseled the prophet at Delphi where the Pythian priestess instructed him to appease his wrongdoing by serving King Eurystheus for a long time. During this 12-year time frame, Hercules needed to play out the 10 works the lord would expect of him. The Pythian additionally changed Hercules name from Alcides (after his granddad Alcaeus) to what we ordinarily call him, Heracles (in Greek) or Hercules (the Latin structure and the one most normally utilized today whether or not the reference is to a Greek or Roman legend). The Pythian additionally advised Hercules to move to Tiryns. Ready to successfully make up for his deadly anger, Hercules obliged. The Twelve Labors-Introduction Eurystheus set before Hercules a progression of inconceivable undertakings. Whenever finished, some of them would have filled a valuable need since they evacuated the universe of perilous, ruthless beasts or fertilizer, yet others were whimsical impulses of a lord with a feeling of inadequacy: Comparing himself with the legend will undoubtedly cause Eurystheus to feel deficient. Since Hercules was carrying out these responsibilities to give penance for his wrongdoings, Eurystheus demanded there be no ulterior thought process. As a result of this limitation, when King Augeas of Elis [see Peloponnese map Bb] guaranteed Hercules an expense for cleaning his corrals (Labor 5), Eurystheus denied the accomplishment: Hercules needed to do another to fill his quantity. That King Augeas reneged and didn't pay Hercules had no effect to Eurystheus. Different assignments the ruler of Tiryns set his nephew were make-work. For example, when Hercules recovered the apples of the Hesperides (Labor 11), yet Eurystheus had
Saturday, August 22, 2020
My Best Friend Essay In all honesty, my closest companion is an older lady in her late 70s. Her name is Maria. She is Spanish fair, wedded, without any kids. We couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t have all the earmarks of being increasingly unique. Maria and I met at the exercise center a year ago. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s pretty much all we shared for all intents and purpose when we met Ã¢â¬ that we were both dynamic and solid. Numerous individuals would address why I would grow such a cozy relationship with somebody more than twice my age. It was our disparities that really brought us close. Maria had just experienced everything that I still couldn't seem to look in my life, and she had a great deal to instruct me. I was a prepared audience, as I was confronting things throughout my life that I had never experienced. I required direction and fellowship, and Maria resembled a heavenly attendant sent to control me. I appreciate investing energy with Maria. She is lovely constantly and extremely accommodating. I can converse with her about anything, and she appears to realize exactly what to state or when not to state anything by any stretch of the imagination. She is extremely sure and doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t attempt to intrigue anybody by professing to be somebody else; maybe this is the reason I am so attracted to her. Maria is content with her life regardless of the way that she never had youngsters and is in a mind-blowing winter. She has allowed me the chance to take a gander at my life in an alternate point of view and to acknowledge and be pleased with the entirety of the decisions that I have made, while simultaneously offering direction for my future. Each second I go through with Maria is a blessing. I value it. I trust she gains as much from our companionship as I do.
Friday, August 21, 2020
For what reason do we need laws? The law controls social relations and conduct To fulfill our fundamental needs and to abuse the maximum capacity of human presence, individuals have constantly tried to live in organization or society with others, the premise of this presence, by its very nature, must include social connection. To guarantee the general public capacities successfully and endures it is important to set up standards of adequate conduct. The state may force approvals or disciplines on the individuals who neglect to agree to these rules.Although these standards are commonly acknowledged by individuals from the general public and are remembered for the lawful request, social cooperation will definitely prompt questions in view of clashing interests of people and gatherings. It is hard for gatherings of people to live in impeccable amicability. The goal of any legitimate framework will give answers to ordinary issues that emerge. The answers for such issues must accord with the targets that are decided by the network to be socially attractive. The law mentions to individuals what they should do or abstain from doing.Without laws, there would be no code of what is satisfactory conduct, without laws, political agitation and bedlam would happen society. The law ensures people and their privileges The principle focal point of the law is to secure the privileges of people in the public eye. So as to have a sense of security and secure whether at home or in more extensive network laws are expected to ensure our privileges. On the off chance that a wrongdoing is submitted against an individual, the police will research and the wrongdoer will be arraigned through the courts and get a punishment.Under common law, if an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s rights have been encroached the courts may give pay to the person to the harm they have endured. The law reflects network esteems Each general public has a lot of qualities and convictions that are critical to the people of th at society. Laws are expected to secure the estimations of the network and to mirror the societyÃ¢â¬â¢s convictions of what is adequate and unsuitable. To most social orders, a significant worth is the significance of human life; thus any activities that damage of meddle with the nature of human life would be against the law.As society transforms, it is significant that the law likewise changes to reflect changing qualities and perspectives in the network. Be that as it may, there are regions of the law where there are clashing qualities inside the network a few models incorporate deliberate willful extermination, human cloning and same sex relationships. There has been ongoing dubious conversations concerning the restricting of smoking in private living arrangements because of the effect of smoking on kids and pets who share a house with smokers. The law secures society Laws are expected to shield society in general from the possibility of peril, damage and fear.Laws guarantee so cietyÃ¢â¬â¢s wellbeing. The arrangement of detainment under the criminal law shields society by expelling the guilty party from the network for an assigned timeframe. Punishments forced by the courts can go about as an impediment to the more extensive network in that the outcomes of carrying out a criminal offense are generally known and individuals will abstain from perpetrating offenses later on, bringing about the assurance of society. Schoolwork: Revise the reasons we read laws Read the media cut p12 and answer addresses 1,2,3,4,5
Tuesday, May 26, 2020
Case Study Format - What is it?When it comes to taking your first steps in the world of business, you may not be sure about the difference between a case study and an outline. A case study is a case study that explains the methods used by the subject of the research. The complete information on the method used in researching and doing the research is included in the case study and outline.An outline, on the other hand, explains the entire process involved in research. Many different things can be covered in an outline. From starting up and conducting the research, through writing the case study, through creating an outline, it is possible to cover everything that is involved in the research. However, the complete process can be done as one case study, or as separate case studies.The case study is based on the research that has been conducted and the results that have been obtained by the potential customers. The case study format also outlines what questions were asked, and how they were answered. After each question, the purpose and answer to the question are explained.If you want to find a reason for doing the research, in the overview format, then you can create an outline for the research. The overview format is perfect for those who do not want to do the research themselves. It is also suitable for those who already know how to do research. This is a great format if you already know some of the tricks of the trade.With a case study format, you are required to write an outline for the entire process. If you only want to see the method used, in the outline format, then you can do that, but it is not necessary. You can also make a case study using the case study format, with the purpose of telling what the reader should take away from the case study.The outline format is usually easier to use for those who do not have a lot of experience writing or for those who have little knowledge of research. For those who do have knowledge of the techniques, this format is good because it gives the reader a solid guide on how to go about doing the research. The outline format is perfect for those who do not know how to do the research themselves. It is also good for those who are new to the techniques, but do not know how to approach research.The case study format can also be used by those who already know how to do research. In the case study format, the reader can get all the information that is needed for the reader to make an informed decision. While the outline format is very convenient for those who already have experience writing, the case study format can be used by anyone to learn how to do research.
Saturday, May 16, 2020
Rules are an important aspect of every classroom, especially when youre working with high school students. TeenagersÃ¢â¬âwith their budding hormones and complex social livesÃ¢â¬âcan be easily distracted, and though many are mature and highly capable, they can still benefit from structure and rules. Classroom rules provide guidelines that allow students to know what is expected of them. Ideally, they should be simple, easy to follow, and posted somewhere for all of your students to see. One of the keys to writing effective classroom rules is to keep them general enough to cover a variety of situations but also specific to your students, classroom, and school. Key Takeaways: Classroom Rules for High School Students Classroom rules provide the structure and guidelines needed to create a productive learning environment.You can create a set of classroom rules yourself or solicit input from your students and work together to make a list of rules. At the beginning of each school year or semester, go over the rules in class with your students, leaving time for questions and discussion. Students are more likely to follow the rules when they understand the purpose behind them; rules that seem excessive or unnecessary are more likely to be ignored. For this reason, it is important to communicate why you have established certain rules and how those rules will help create an effective, well-run classroom. Sample Classroom Rules for High School Students There are a number of different ways to create a list of classroom rules. You could do it all yourself, setting the rules however you see fit. Another way is to solicit suggestions from your students; you might even have them vote on which rules they prefer. The benefit of this method is that it allows you to learn more about what kind of classroom environment your students favor. Some possible rules for a high school classroom include: Arrive on Time: To keep the classroom running smoothly, everyone needs to be on time and ready to start class. StudentsÃ outside the door and rushing in after the bell has begun to ring will be considered tardy. You must be in your seat when the bell rings to be counted present.Turn Off Cell Phones and Electronic Devices: When class is in session, cell phones and other electronic devices (mp3 players, tablets) must be turned off. If they are not turned off, they will be confiscated.No Food or Drinks: Eating and drinking should be reserved for lunchtime and breaks between class. (However, exceptions should be made for students with medical needs.)Attend to Personal Needs Before Class: Use the restroom or stop at your locker before class to avoid causing disruption for your fellow students. Hall passes are limited, so please do not ask for a pass unless you have a true emergency.Bring Required Materials Every Day: Unless you have been instructed otherwise, come to class prepared with all of the required materials you were advised to bring at the beginning of the school year. Do not interrupt the teacher or other students to ask to borrow items you forgot to bring to class.Start Your Assignment When the Bell Rings: Directions will be posted on the board or on the projection screen when you arrive for class. Please do not wait to be reminded to begin your assignment.Use Polite Speech and Body Language: Always behave in a way that is respectful to your teacher and fellow students. Unkind teasing and impolite behavior are unacceptableÃ at all times and may lead to disciplinary actions. Be respectful of other students when they are speaking. Any form of bullying will not be tolerated.Speak When Permitted: Most of the time, you must raise your hand in class and wait to be called on before speaking. There may be times during group work when quiet talking is permitted. Be aware of when talking is and isnt allowed. It is important that students remain quiet during exa ms until all students have finished.No Cheating: Students caught cheating will receive a zero and a phone call home. Both the student who shares his work andÃ the person who copies it will suffer the same consequences. Be mindful of accidental cheating by covering your paper during exams and preparation of other graded assignments.Listen and Follow Directions: It is important for you to pay attention in class and follow the teachers directions. You will be a more successful student if you listen in class and follow instructions.Never Pack up Before Its Time to Leave: It may be tempting to pack up early when its getting close to the end of class. Nevertheless, you should wait until the teacher has dismissed you before preparing to leave.Turn in Work on Time: Unless you have been given an extension, always turn in your work on time. Late assignments will receive a lower score.Use Technology for Learning: If the class is using a form of technology such as computers or tablets for a l esson, use the technology for its intended purposeÃ¢â¬âlearning. Dont browse the web or use social media.Make up Missed Work: If you have missed a lesson or an assignment, make arrangements with your teacher to complete the work.If You Have a Question, Ask for Help: If something is confusingÃ¢â¬âsuch as assignment instructions or something in your reading materialsÃ¢â¬âask your teacher or another student for help.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Business Model and Strategic Plan Part I Bus/475 Integrated Business Topics Business Model and Strategic Plan Part I: Conceptualizing a New Product or Service Division of an Existing Business The success of an organization depends on the strategic plan. In the plan, it will define the mission, vision, ad value statements. The strategic plan is designed to assist the organization with its strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats. The SWOT analysis will help develop a strong strategic plan and map out the direction to follow to achieve an organizational vision and goal. The purpose of this paper is to cover the mission, vision and core value of De VonÃ¢â¬â¢s Printing.Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Exceed customer expectation e. Excellence f. Share knowledge g. Simple process h. Team work i. Participate and contribute to activities The company has beliefs that the custom printing will target a huge segment of clients, who are in need of quality printing. The management team wants to serve a competitive price depending on the design. OrganizationÃ¢â¬â¢s Strategic Direction De VonÃ¢â¬â¢s objectives for the future are to achieve the goals in the strategic plan to expand on the growth for the company. Once the achievement has been accomplished, the management team would review the profit made and look at other opportunities in the printing industry such as screen printing. De VonÃ¢â¬â¢s future goal is to add to the partnership network with the competitors such as Paramount Printing. The executive and management team has discussed the advancement plan of the objectives. The objectives would include connect with web designers and screen printing organizations, communicate, and advertise the new service. Produce a partnership with local competitors by advertising workshops or seminars, and use a recruitment method to reach out to master printers. Use social media, such as Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram, to advertise and promote the product and service. The strategic plan solely depends on the mission, vision, and core values. The mission statem ent identifies the company and who it supports; the clientele, employees, and investors. The missionShow MoreRelatedBusiness Models Canvas And Business Model2281 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesBusiness Model Canvas and Business Model Innovation: Business Model Canvas is one of the most popular models used by companies to help them tread through the difficult scenarios of current world. The article starts with a brief introduction about BMC and its components which sets the tone for rest of the article. Certain terms introduced and defined in the BMC explanation are used in the business model innovation framework discussed further. The business model framework explained further in thisRead MoreThe Business Model ( Bm ) Essay939 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesRQ1. The business model (BM) delineates the logic of how an organization creates, acquires, and delivers value and facilitates the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s strategy implementation through the organizational structures, processes, and systems (Osterwalder Pigneur, 2010). The BM seeks to establish and maintain a relationship with a targeted demographic through the provision of benefits that solve a problem or meets a need. This value proposition is available through key resources, act ivities, and partnershipsRead MoreDescription Of The Business Model3289 Words Ã |Ã 14 Pages Final Project- MBA620 1. Description of the Business Model Making the decision on whether to go forward with a start-up verses purchasing a franchise can be a difficult one. Many factors have to be considered in order make the best sound decision for that individual. Thankfully, many resources have been established so that research can be found easier. Ã¢â¬Å"There are also many options as far as entrepreneurial ventures are concerned. One of the most common decisions entrepreneurs face is whetherRead MoreFreemium Business Model21065 Words Ã |Ã 85 PagesFreemium as a Business Model for Mobile Video SERGEJ KOTLIAR Master of Science Thesis Stockholm, Sweden 2011 Freemium as a Business Model for Mobile Video SERGEJ KOTLIAR MasterÃ¢â¬â¢s Thesis in Media Technology (30 ECTS credits) at the Media Management Master Programme Royal Institute of Technology year 2011 Supervisor was Christopher Rosenqvist, SSE Examiner was Johan Stenberg TRITA-CSC-E 2011:026 ISRN-KTH/CSC/E--11/026-SE ISSN-1653-5715 Royal Institute of Technology School ofRead MoreThe Subscription Business Model Is A Marketing Model1538 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe subscription business model is a business model where a customer must pay a subscription price to have access to the product/service. The model was pioneered by magazines and newspapers, but is now used by many businesses and websites. we ve got to provide an on-going, novel yet practical service that adds value to customers lives by encouraging/changing habits. You need to relate to your customers lifestyle and that can only be done successfully if you have a common interest and passionRead MoreTraditional Offline Business Models1331 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesTraditional offline business models have been adapted for the internet but remain very similar online as to the offline world. In essence all models provide some form of product or service in exchange for financial reward. However not all online business models are equal. Selecting the right model for your online business warrants careful consideration because each model requires different skills and time commitments to operate. Not all models will suit you or compliment your business interests. AlsoRead MoreStrategy Vs. Business Model1536 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesStrategy Vs Business Model Lot of researchers have tried to distinguish between Strategy and Business model and the literature tries to give a definition for Strategy and Business model. The Article Ã¢â¬Å"From Strategy to Business Model and on to TacticsÃ¢â¬ discuss Strategy and Business model as follows; Business Model refers to the logic of the firm, the way it operates and how it creates value for its stakeholders and Strategy refers to the choice of business model through which the firm will competeRead MoreBusiness Model Canvas Zillow4595 Words Ã |Ã 19 PagesE-BUSINESS ANALYSIS OF REAL ESTATE COMPANIES Delvin Grant, DePaul University, USA Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Emna Cherif, DePaul University, USA Email: email@example.com ABSTRACT We analyzed the e-business websites of Realestate.yahoo.com, Realtor.com, and Zillow.com. We looked at the similarities and differences between them and how e-business components help differentiate one company from another and the role this plays in contributing to their success. We looked at which business model componentsRead MoreHolacracy and the Zappos Business Model1808 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pages HOLACRACY AND THE ZAPPOS INC. BUSINESS MODEL Brenden Rush Rel 342 Excursus February 23, 2016 HOLACRACY AND THE ZAPPOS INC. BUSINESS MODEL Every business uses a model. Some have a loose business model where everyone kind of goes with the flow while others are more regimented. Some copy business models from competitors and some are innovators, developing their own business model from the ground up. There is no wrong or right way to run a business. Whatever works for the organization, its employeesRead MoreThe Origin Of The Term `` Business Model3291 Words Ã |Ã 14 PagesThe origin of the term Ã¢â¬Å"business modelÃ¢â¬ can be traced back to Peter Druckers classic 1954 book, the practice of management where it has evolved due to the emergence of new technology and modern consumer. What defines a business model? Business model has been referred to as an architecture (Osterwalder 2004), a structural template (Amitt Zott 2011), a method (Afuah Tucci 2011) and a pattern (Brousseau Penard 2006). Saul Kaplan (2012, p.18) defines business model as a Ã¢â¬Ëstory about how an organization
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Describe about the Business History and International Business for Lenovo. Answer: Introduction Lenovo, the progressive Chinese laptop manufacturer underwent a dramatic business change in 2004 when it acquired Personal Computers Division from IBM. This acquisition made Lenovo the third largest PC manufacturer in the world, but there were certain intriguing aspects that questioned the firms strategic decision initially. As Hill (2011) describes the case of Lenovo acquiring IBM in the case study presented in this assignment, it is imperative to delve into appropriateness of this strategy. The following sections tend to analyse the case critically with respect to theories on strategic acquisitions concerning staffing approach and cross cultural business establishments. Earlier published theories and cases tend to support the arguments in connection with the case study as they develop in each sub-section. Literature Review Hofstedes Theory on Culture/ Cultural Dimensions A major part of this report is based on cultural distinction, which makes it imperative to bring into discussion Geert Hofstedes views on the impact of culture on Organizations and their functions. Geert Hofstede (2011) in his work Dimensionalizing Cultures described the six dimensions of national cultures which tend to get significant in cross-cultural environments for Organizations at Organizational level ad are entirely different from the value dimensions at individual level. The culture defined in his theory by Hofstede is the collective programming of mind which was later argued upon by many researchers including Tsuji (2015), Stroup (2016) and Durand (2012) in their respective works. The argument was based on the assumption that if collective programming comprises culture, it should be possible for Organizations to train their human resources to adapt to entirely varying cultures in their native environments. The fact however remains that Theory of Cultural Dimensions by Hofste de is essentially valuable in presenting the fundamentally different aspects of national cultures and that the modern Organizations must be prepared to face the challenge of such underlying differences. The six dimensions used by Hofstede (2011) in his theory of cultural dimensions were Power Distance, Uncertainty Avoidance, Individualism, Masculinity, Long Term Orientation and Indulgence. Cultural Dimensions Framework Source: (Hofstede, 2016) The below presented argument for each section is based on the cultural comparison between two countries, China and USA, which helps in assessing the strategic decision made by Lenovo against the cultural challenges the Organization faced after acquisition. According to the statistics, China differs from USA hugely on the five dimensions including Power Distance (recognition of hierarchical authorities), Individualism (China is a collectivist society), Uncertainty Avoidance (Chinese are less threatened by future insecurities than Americans), Long Term Orientation (Setting and achieving long termed goals) and Indulgence (China has a restrained society with higher control on their impulses). In short, the figure helps in establishing that Lenovo was an Organization with inherent Chinese values of high control, adaptability, entrepreneurial spirit to achieve long termed goals, less insecurity towards future and better discipline through lesser indulgence, the characteristics which were keen on strategic outcome. Case Study of Lenovo: A Critical Analysis Strategic Appropriateness of Staffing Approach Buckley (2009) in his study on Business History and International Business mentioned one of the major reasons for Acquisitions among International businesses as the attempt to elevate global positioning. The author found this single factor responsible for several international firms presented as the case studies in his paper as highly decisive whenever the acquisitions crossing the borders took place. Correa (2010) presented her work to include the concept of balanced and unbalanced acquisitions in this regard, relating her findings to the challenges that international businesses faced when acquiring a firm. According to Correa (2010) it was imperative for the acquiring firm to look into strategic positioning when taking over the business operations of another multinational firm; the strategic challenges however were hard to be analysed and could surface as potentially riskier proportion leading to unbalanced state of acquisition. Lee (2010) also used the terms balanced and unbalance d acquisitions in connection with his study on political uncertainty during Mergers Acquisitions which could potentially move a major business dealing well planned and executed from the state of balanced to unbalanced under the influence of political barriers. In this regard, Lee (2010) also elaborated on the people management issues which were directly related to the cross border acquisitions with laws and regulations of the two countries of differing nature, often conflicting each other in their own realms. A remarkable study however was presented by Ping Deng (2010) delving into the generic nature of people management issues when the acquisitions between two countries involved collaboration of Eastern and Western cultures. In his paper titled, Absorptive Capacity and Failed Cross-Border MA, Ping Deng (2010) observed that Chinese manufacturing companies in the spree to establish a global stand with support from Chinese Government after 1999 had rapidly expanded their operations b eyond territories. While most of these acquisitions failed terribly on account of the limited exposure and tacit knowledge that Chinese firms held on managing global operations, the core of the strategic failure happened to be low Absorptive Capacity of these companies in the scenarios where they failed. Lee (2010) in his study also referred to Absorptive Capacity in relation to the example of Chinese Electronics firm TCLs miserable failure of American counterpart Thomson Electronics in 2004 owing to the lagging Absorptive Capacity of TCL leading to massive HR challenges which were evident in less than a year of acquisition. The implications of international Mergers and Acquisitions therefore include certain challenges, of which Human Resource Management challenges according to Buckley (2009) are most complex to handle. Buckley (2009) in his paper on Business History and International Businesses concluded that of all the assets that an Organization possess, tacit knowledge is the most valuable for competitive positioning of business. The author (Buckley, 2009) explained that the fact that this knowledge lies with the human resources of the firm, competitive ability of the firm is directly associated to the people working in it. Bose, Dasgupta and Ghosh (2011) seconded the opinions of Buckley in their combined work in which the co-authors mentioned flow of tacit knowledge as one of the main reasons why firms seek acquisition. The co-authors explained that in case of mergers and acquisitions, the alliance can be between equals or can be between unequals. Businesses as equals or unequals were regarded so on the relative sizes, positioning and scales of operations. Bose, Dasgupta and Ghosh (2011) further added that implications of human resource management gets more complex in the case of international acquisitions which involve unequals since apart from the national cultural gaps to be bridged, the alliance needs to look into the internal cultural gaps owing to the different culture of two Organizations leading to blocked flow of tacit knowledge intended as the aim for acquisition. Owen and Yawson (2012) in their research paper titled Human Development and Cross Border Acquisition found that some of the most successful acquisitions around the world could bridge the gaps related to human resourcing between two Organizations by working on policies that can address the underlying gaps between human resourcing cultures between firms. Applying the above theory on the case of Lenovo, there were massive staffing issues which the firm has to address before affirming their strategic positioning through IBMs acquisition. This was clearly the case of business between unequals where the probability of Lenovo falling short on Absorptive Capacity was high due to its overall exposure and nature of business. Confined to serve individuals and SMEs with China, Lenovos inception in 1995 could never match IBMs experience of running global operations since 1896 with purely American culture at the core of business activities. Through the staffing approach of offering key management positions to IBMs ex-managers, Lenovo made sure that the tacit knowledge which was capable of driving this deal to success remained intact with new Lenovo and was not moved out with IBMs management. Also, the firm relied massively on the profound expertise of staffs of IBM to carry on the combined business from where it was taken over. This means that t he behaviours and attitudes of people in IBM which had been one of the major reasons for IBMs growth in past were to be harnessed now in favour of new Lenovo. Considering this, Lenovo was evidently reliant on the existing culture of IBMs human resourcing management to place itself exactly where IBM had left. Basing its headquarters in China or proposing new policies to IBMs ex-employees which were in any manner less attractive to them than their earlier pay packages could risk in employees leaving the firm as the part of contract. Closely analysing this scenario, Lenovo made a justified move by adapting itself to the existing culture of IBM than changing the all powerful human resourcing management at the acquired firm. In this business deal between the unequal businesses the competitive advantage of new Lenovo was closely tied with adorning the established success of IBM which the firm decided not to disturb. In this case study however there are certain aspects which are not evident readily and make use of further research into published journals to clarify some complex staffing issues. One of the aspects is the movement of companys headquarters to New York which meant the cultural shift in working environment for Lenovos existing employees including its managers. Though the Chinese management shifted to America to adapt itself to IBM, the case study does not elaborate on staffing challenges which are comprehensible due to different nature of businesses the two firms dealt with. While Lenovo focussed mainly on PC manufacturing, IBM was popular for its IT and business solutions through its Personal Computer Division. Study by Lee (2011) refers a section on this acquisition of IBM by Lenovo in which the author mentioned that Lenovo in New York had to undergo complex hierarchical orientation when it tried to fill middle management positions in the company by Chinese employees. These employee s with proven expertise on the subject area when working for Lenovo, China could not adopt easily to the American culture where firms oath was sung before every official meeting. Other than language and cultural issues which created the barrier between Chinese and American employees of new firm to look forward to seamless integration, there were strategic financial challenges that this staffing approach brought along. In terms of cheaper cost of labour, headquarters in China would have been more profitable for new Lenovo than New York. The stringent labour laws and federal policies which compromised the firm about 34% of its revenue within first 5 years made it clear to new Lenovo that human resource management had more staffing challenges than initially anticipated (Lee, 2011). In brief, Lenovo made the appropriate staffing decision in terms of retaining the competitive positioning in global market where low absorptive capacity of Lenovo as well as its insignificant scale of operations in comparison with IBMs global business could be only through its own shift to the new American culture. The management of IBM promised the much needed tacit knowledge for running the massive operations for new Lenovo and also gave an opportunity to the firm to strengthen its own competence by learning through IBMs established culture. There were several staffing challenges however that Lenovo took long to overcome. Most of those were related to positioning of Chinese employees to entirely different work culture of America which placed initial barrier in the flow of tacit knowledge, abandoning altogether the purpose with which acquisitions are strategically made. And yet, this was one of the opportunities that Lenovo despite of its small size and little experience handled inc redibly well through its human resource management favouring the culture that had more offering to firms strategic positioning in global market. In brief, Lenovo did not repeat the error that TCL committed during its acquisition of Thomson Electronics, but took a route which is usually not common to the firm that is acquiring. Suitability of Acquisition Strategy Literature presents several researches focussing on varying drivers for international acquisition. Or in other words the objectives of firms due to which they acquire a different business decides the acquisition strategy they adopt. Buckley (2009) focussed on Market Dominance as one of the reasons for which corporate firms plan to acquire the other firms. Dominating the market is an important factor for firms which rely on consumer base primarily. Acquiring other businesses, usually smaller than their own sizes, rapidly help the acquiring firm to expand itself within a certain market. Lee (2010) made a connection between Market Domination of the firms and the distribution channels spread across the market in which the firm plans acquisition. The author (Lee, 2010) took cases of Chinese banks to reveal that fast spreading Chinese banking establishment in South Africa is the result of some of the highly popular banks in China to utilize the remotely established subsidiaries in new terr itories, for which the most suited and feasible method of adoption is Acquisition. Market Dominance is also argued upon by researchers like Bose, Dasgupta and Ghosh (2011) as another term for increasing global market share in which financially established firms look into opportunities in newer regions to make an entry with an objective of strengthening their market share through prospective markets. The co-authors (Bose, Dasguta and Ghosh, 2011) explained their argument through Vodafones example which expanded geographically with the sole motive of enhancing the global market share and therefore the global market dominance. Correa (2010) in her study on financial institutions observed Competence Leverage as the main driver behind international acquisition. Correa explained the case of General Electric Company to reveal how the global conglomerate created the channel to leverage its competence on wide array of financial services including debt management and credit risk during the ti me when there was no rival for GE in the North American market. In-spite of massive expenditure and resourcing challenges GE acquired relatively much smaller firms in Asian and European markets with the motive of introducing several new services in the new markets as part of its product development plan. Mullarkey (2008) conducted an extensive research on two global e-book brands and found that acquisition in some cases is also an attempt by the market rival in adjusting itself to competition. This was later affirmed by Stroup (2016) in his comparative study on international acquisitions in which the author explained the terribly miscalculated decision of Japanese firm Matsushita investing in Hollywood that resulted in the losses of over $3.3 billion for the firm. According to Stroup (2016), the acquisition move was motivated by Sonys acquisition of Columbia Pictures in the same year which had suddenly brought popularity to Sonys brand image and the speculations urged Matsushita to replicate the move of a scale that was equivalent or better than Sonys. Another acquisition strategy which is common among international businesses is the growth strategy by acquiring trending Capability/ Resource from suitable markets. Owen and Yawson (2012) took the example of Nokia to explain how the Fi nnish mobile manufacturer turned to acquire small scale businesses and new ventures in United States to get the hold on Smartphone Manufacturing skills while its own research and development on entering into Smartphone manufacturing got extensively delayed for various reasons. Resource Acquisition according to Tsuji (2015) is the usual acquisition tactic among international firms as they face resource crunch in their domestic markets and look to new markets for alternatives. IBMs acquisition by Lenovo as presented in the case is apparently a clear example of Market Dominance where Lenovo attempted to enhance its market share by taking a giant leap into the global market positioning. Just before the acquisition of IBMs PC division, Lenovos own global market share in personal computers was just 2.2%. Until then the firm stood 9th in the list of global PC manufacturers after Dell, Hewlett Packard, Siemens/ Fujitsu, Acer Technologies, Toshiba, NEC and Apple Inc (Lee, 2010). This business deal made the firm 3rd largest manufacturer for PCs across the world through the international acquaint of a global player massive in size and scale. Lenovos move to carry on with its acquisition decision can also be termed a forced move, which was on account of the rising competition it was facing within China. Dell through its innovative launch of customized PCs became the global pioneer in the domain and also attained cost reduction on its manufacturing strategy by confin ing its commodities as specified by the customers (Tsuji, 2015). Lenovo, though progressive and highly skilled at its own domain of manufacturing personal computers could easily assess the market competition getting tough with Toshiba, Acer and Apple gradually establishing their foot among Chinese buyers (Lee, 2010). Lenovos global expansion strategy in this scenario can be justified as an opportunistic move of a leading player which had assumed market leadership in its home market, that was close to 27% in 2015 (Tsuji, 2015). To expand globally, there are two strategies that could have been considered by the firm: Establish its own subsidiaries in foreign territories Acquire an existing corporate brand with global reputation The second option to acquire the existing global establishment with considerable market share proposed a much quicker strategy to strengthen the global presence, which Lenovo finally picked up as its choice. Acquisition of IBMs PC division presented itself as a rare opportunity to Lenovo through which the firm could have an instant presence within and outside China with the future prospects to leverage the management and technological expertise of IBM. According to Tsuji (2015), through this acquisition Lenovo saved over $200 million in its supply chain operations establishments which would have been required if the firm had opted for setting up its own subsidiaries worldwide on a similar scale. Conclusively, these were the potential benefits that acquisition strategy of Lenovo offered to the firm: An opportunity to make a presence in and out of China An opportunity to expand the domain of operations by culminating established IT and solution services domains of IBM Beat the surging competition within China through an alliance that provided both resource and capability to the firm Making use of a highly established management team of IBM to run an international business strategy after acquisition Ensure that the tacit knowledge flow important for business is retained within the firm after acquisition Massive savings in cost while balancing growth in efficiency and economies of scale Importance of Cross-Cultural Understanding for Global Business Operations Durand (2012) in his study on global village converging the territories while eliminating the distinction among cultures commented that the businesses which would survive the ordeal of quickly changing environment would be the ones which are conducted internationally. The author (Durand, 2012) made this remark in conjunction with the fact that international businesses in todays times do not seize to expand, they rather grow at every available opportunity across cultures to harness the best of those cultures for continued progress. Weber and Yedidia Tarba (2012) in their combined work on cross-cultural analysis of Mergers and Acquisitions explained the concept of Cultural Theme which represents each culture and is deeply rooted in the people belonging to that culture. The co-authors (Weber and Yedidia Tarba, 2012) exemplified how values and attitudes defining the cultural inheritance becomes a dominating factor when international businesses are done, as the two entities try to bring b est of their cultures to a common platform to assess each other strategically. This becomes particularly important in case of Acquisitions where the firm acquiring the skills and knowledge of the other firm assesses endurance, thrift and trustworthiness of other firm through its people. The case of Lenovo depicts this clearly through an off-route staffing strategy that Lenovo implemented for the new firm. Well aware of the fact that Western culture less susceptible to adapt itself according to the Eastern culture must not be pushed to the situation where the acquisition decision turned to be a huge mistake. Instead, Lenovo made use of its understanding of Confucius values so deeply laid among Chinese employees flexible with work nature that the firm made the decision to move its headquarters to New York. There were evidently no changes brought to the routine work aspect of ex-IBM employees increasing the probability of skilled and experienced American workforce to continue working a s usual. Hofstedes Cultural Model depicts Chinese culture as a long-term oriented culture where results are seen with the strategic eye to major decisions, while American culture tends to reap the short-termed values (Hofstede, Hofstede and Minkov, 2010). From the case of Lenovos acquisition of IBM, this can be witnessed clearly as the firm made the strategic decision of not disturbing anything for IBM managers and employees in terms of what they called gain from the acquisition; however the firm made the decision to bring an integrated structure within 3 years of duration which meant that Chinese employees of Lenovo had to suffer the huge gaps in Organizational cultures which existed between IBM and Lenovo initially. Vidal-Suarez and Lopez-Duarte (2013) in their study explained that the much speculated business deal between Lenovo and IBM which was thought to be suffering from huge integration issues between cultures surfaced as one of the highly successful acquisition deals in history. Acco rding to the co-authors (Vidal-Suarez and Lopez-Duarte, 2013), even after 10 years of passage when Lenovo is entirely on its own managing the international operations in its own way, the firm continues to lead the worlds PC manufacturing market demonstrating that its cultural understanding of business had an immensely profitable impact in the long run. Popli et al. (2016) mentioned another aspect of cross-cultural understanding in business by focussing their work on differences in Organizational cultures. The co-authors explained that in contrast with the national cultural differences which highlight several challenges for international businesses to penetrate and satisfy the demands of new consumers, the Organizational differences are packed with opportunities to combine varying synergies. Lenovo through its strategic decision of acquisition clearly harnessed this difference in synergies by combining the positives and the bests of the two Organizations in its favour. IBMs PC division with its Think series of notebooks and laptops and the globally established business operations was exactly what Lenovo wanted to acquire. Lenovo already had lower cost of infrastructure and the massive scale of manufacturing which was waiting for an opportunistic entry into international platform with premium brand of products. IBMs acquisition helpe d Lenovo fill the gap that the company was waiting for since long. The limited experience on cross-cultural management was the biggest barrier for Lenovo to bridge that the firm excellently handled by retaining the key management authorities of ex-IBM while placing itself within the vicinity to learn the crux of international business management quickly and accurately. Mullarkey (2008) remarked that in case of international business alliances the knowledge of cross cultural factors becomes a driver for accelerated collaboration. An understanding on how the business functions in the other culture helps in expediting, strengthening and co-ordinating of business deal which seldom means reaching a common resolve between the cultural differences appropriately. With reference to Lenovos acquisition of IBM, it may be assumed that IBM had the required cultural knowledge about the firm it wanted to sell its PC division to. The highly expansive global operations of its PC division was decided to be sold to a Chinese fir which could be deemed responsible enough to take it through the hard competitive times this division faced. According to Tsuji (2015), the first proposal for sales of its PC division was made in 2002 by IBM to Lenovo, where the estimated business deal of $4 billion was too high for Lenovo to get into an agreement. The reason that Lenovo was s pecifically selected for this acquisition was its successful and responsible professional history, progressive and yet highly balanced manner of market orientation in China and its urge to enter into global operations (Tsuji). The presented case study further describes the story as the second attempt made by IBM in 2004, which was now settled for $1.75 billion, a price that Lenovo considered was reasonable to make an entry to global platform with a division that could elaborate its global market positioning and skills. In this case therefore the knowledge of Chinese culture, the manner in which Chinese firms work and their insistence on strategic gains rather than the short-termed hauls helped IBM zero upon the right owner for acquisition. Conclusion In the global electronic market, the acquisition of IBMs PC division by Lenovo in 2004 presented an exemplary insight into strategic decision making. It was more significant considering the numerous failed cross-border acquisition deals which gave rise to speculation that Lenovo was making an attempt of a Chinese Snake swallowing American Elephant (Lee, 2010). Since this business acquisition, over 11 years have passed and Lenovo still manages the global electronic PC manufacturing market with its market leadership secured. There were some obvious cultural challenges, both on national and Organizational level, which Lenovo handled exceptionally well by looking into the strategies that were connected to Chinese and American attitudes respectively. New Lenovos strategic move to shift its headquarters to New York and retain the tacit knowledge of IBM through its existing people and top management is the typical case where cultural egotism had high probability to dominate. However Lenovo in the clear light of strategic competitive positioning handed over the highest executive roles to the ex-IBM leadership making sure that the skills responsible for strategizing and running global business operations were still in command. References BOSE, G., DASGUPTA, S. and GHOSH, A. (2011). Cross-Border Acquisitions and Optimal Government Policy*.Economic Record, 87(278), pp.427-437. Buckley, P. (2009). Business history and international business.Business History, 51(3), pp.307-333. Correa, R. (2010). Cross-Border Bank Acquisitions: Is There a Performance Effect?.SSRN Electronic Journal. Durand, M. (2012). The Global MA Tango: How to Reconcile Cultural Differences in Mergers, Acquisitions, and Strategic.Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, 19(2), pp.271-273. Lee, K. (2010). Cross-Border Mergers and Acquisitions amid Political Uncertainty.SSRN Electronic Journal. Hofstede, (2016).China - Geert Hofstede. [online] Geert-hofstede.com. Available at: https://geert-hofstede.com/china.html [Accessed 14 Oct. 2016]. Hofstede, G. (2011). Dimensionalizing Cultures: The Hofstede Model in Context.Online Readings in Psychology and Culture, 2(1). Mullarkey, M. (2008). ebrary and Two International E-book Surveys.The Acquisitions Librarian, 19(3-4), pp.213-230. Owen, S. and Yawson, A. (2012). Human Development and Cross-Border Acquisitions.SSRN Electronic Journal. Popli, M., Akbar, M., Kumar, V. and Gaur, A. (2016). Reconceptualizing cultural distance: The role of cultural experience reserve in cross-border acquisitions.Journal of World Business, 51(3), pp.404-412. Stroup, C. (2016). INTERNATIONAL DEAL EXPERIENCE AND CROSS-BORDER ACQUISITIONS.Econ Inq. Tsuji, C. (2015). An Overview of the Cross-Border Mergers and Acquisitions.ABR, 3(2). Vidal-Suarez, M. and Lopez-Duarte, C. (2013). Language distance and international acquisitions: A transaction cost approach.International Journal of Cross Cultural Management, 13(1), pp.47-63. Weber, Y. and Yedidia Tarba, S. (2012). Mergers and acquisitions process: the use of corporate culture analysis.Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, 19(3), pp.288-303.